title={Corporate Finance Practices in Canada: Where Do We Stand?},
author={Kent Baker and Shantanu Dutta and Samir Saadi },
journal={Multinational Finance Journal},
publisher={Multinational Finance Society; Global Business Publications},
keywords={Capital budgeting; cost of capital; risk analysis; real options},
abstract={This study investigates the financial practices of Canadian firms involving capital budgeting, cost of capital estimation, capital structure, and real options. Survey respondents express a strong preference for net present value followed by internal rate of return and payback methods. The least popular capital budgeting technique is real options. Unlike their U.S. and European counterparts, Canadian firms rely more on subjective risk assessments in adjusting their discount rate. The use of subjective judgment by Canadian managers also applies to risk analysis, forecasting project cash flows, and estimating the cost of equity capital. This finding differs markedly from the widespread use of the capital asset pricing model by U.S. and European firms. In examining capital structure choice, the results show support for trade-off theory relative to pecking order theory. Finally, firm size and the education of the chief executive officer influence corporate finance decisions. .},